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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2023
Volume 20 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-221

Online since Saturday, April 29, 2023

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Platelet-rich fibrin potential role in periodontal regeneration: A review study Highly accessed article p. 1
Sarah Al-Rihaymee, Maha Sh Mahmood
Periodontitis is a persistent bacterial-causing disease which damages the supporting periodontium of the teeth. The complexity of supporting tissue structure makes the regeneration a challenge for periodontists. Early investigations were focused on discovering therapeutic substitutes that are biocompatible, simple to prepare and economic. This might cause a local release of growth factors that accelerate the healing process of the soft and hard tissue. Recently, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has received a wide attention as a biocompatible regenerative material in both dental and medical fields. PRF is a natural fibrin-derived biomaterial, and it is easy to obtain. It can be gotten from individual blood without the use of any external anticoagulant. The principle of PRF technology use in the regeneration process is to use patients’ blood to extract all the growth factors which promote regeneration of tissue by accelerating the healing process. The main objective of this review is to concisely illustrate PRF and its contribution in periodontal regeneration.
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Pectin-based nanomaterials as a universal polymer for type 2 diabetes management Highly accessed article p. 7
Zahraa Raad Abdulhakeem, Atheer Hameid Odda, Sura Ahmed Abdulsattar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insufficient tissue insulin sensitivity, insufficient compensatory insulin secretory response, and insufficient insulin production by pancreatic islet cells, which account for more than 90% of all instances of diabetes mellitus, and defects in any of the mechanisms at play may cause a metabolic imbalance that results in the development of T2DM. By getting around several delivery limitations, nanomedicine can effectively increase the efficacy of oral drug administration. According to reports, nanostructures are absorbed 15–250 times more readily than microparticles. Furthermore, nanostructures are constantly used to maintain the release of drugs that are encapsulated to lower doses and dosage frequency, improving patient compliance and reducing adverse effects. Pectin is a biocompatible polysaccharide with a natural biological activity, which pectin in rats with type 2 diabetes was discovered to have potent hypoglycemic, antioxidant, immunomodulating, and anticancer properties that improved diabetic conditions and consequences, reduced insulin resistance, improved blood lipid levels, and reduced liver glycogen content, glucose tolerance, and glucose levels. As a result, the purpose of this article was to evaluate the background materials on the current condition of the scientific literature in this field of study and to review the employment feasibility as well as pectin-modified nanomaterial toward T2DM treatment because it has the ability to reduce insulin secretion and/or blood glucose levels following a sugar load.
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An endocrine perspective of juvenile Moyamoya syndrome/disease: A literature review Highly accessed article p. 13
Rihab Faisal Alabedi, Hussain Alsaffar, Basma Adel Ibrahim, Wasnaa Hadi Abdullah
Moyamoya disease is a progressive rare type of cerebrovascular disease marked by stenosis and occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries and circle of Willis branches, leading to the development of a collateral network of blood vessels at the base of the brain. For Moyamoya angiopathy, endocrinopathies may be risk factors, sequelae, or just coincidental findings. So, it is worth checking and regularly monitoring for these endocrinopathies in patients with Moyamoya angiopathy, aiming for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
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The impact of adding melatonin and other antioxidants on post-thaw human sperm quality during cryopreservation Highly accessed article p. 18
Riyam Hussein, Lina Hasan Abbas, Suhaila Rayhaan, Hawraa Abbas Fadhil, Zainab R AL-Mousawi
Sperm cryopreservation is the process of storing sperm for an extended period of time in order to maintain male fertility. Cryopreservation involves exposing germ cells to substances that prevent freezing, cooling them to below-freezing temperatures, storing, melting, and then removing the anti-freezing material when it has been used. It is helpful in cancer patients before chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Spermatozoa can be adversely impacted by reactive oxygen species by its detrimental effects on sperm membrane lipids, which cause ice crystal formation and the induction of oxidative stress (OS) during cryopreservation. Owing to the tight relationship between OS induction and cryopreservation, several recent researches have concentrated on the function of antioxidants in preserving male fertility. A variety of antioxidants have been developed for in vitro supplementation in an attempt to prevent the cellular harm brought on by cryopreservation. Examples of antioxidants include melatonin, catalase, superoxide dismutase, tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and carotenoids. When added to sperm extenders, melatonin, a natural hormone that plays a role in a number of sperm physiological processes, has frequently increased sperm viability and fertility. In order to determine whether it can protect human sperm from the damaging effects of cryopreservation, it was added to the sperm cryopreservation solution. Melatonin was added to freezing extenders in recent studies on mammals, and this increased the post-thaw activities of human sperm. Therefore, this study was aimed to review the background documents on the state-of-the-art scientific literature in this area of work. Also, this study reviewed the feasibility of employed melatonin in cryopreservation because it has antioxidant ability.
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Chronic orofacial pain management: A narrative review of pharmacological and promising therapy p. 24
Malath Azeez Al-saadi
Chronic orofacial pain is a multifactorial stressful condition. It devastates patients’ lives and depletes medical and dental services. Assertion of a particular effective pharmacological treatment is difficult due to psychological involvement and variation of pain etiology. Proper diagnosis plays a crucial role in determining the proper therapeutic agent. Pharmacological therapy is the first-line treatment of chronic orofacial pain with multiple drug classes to consider. This review aimed to focus on temporomandibular joint-related chronic orofacial pain as a common dental practice type of chronic pain and trigeminal neuralgia. Highlighting their effective and available pharmacological treatment and promising therapies. For mild-to-moderate pain, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are preferred; however, pain chronicity requires another class that tends to modulate neurology- and psychology-associated factors. Common in-practice drugs are antidepressants and anticonvulsants. In most instances, the combination of different pharmacological treatments with a diverse mechanism of action is required for better pain control and reduced monotherapy-related adverse reaction. Opioids should reserve to severe pain and as dual therapy. Palmitoylethanolamide is a promising nutritional therapy that needs further research to establish its effect and safety.
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Association of tuberculosis with diabetes and anemia: A hospital-based cross-sectional study from central India p. 28
Anurag Rathi, Bharat Umakant Patil, Abhishek Raut
Background: According to the World Health Organization, there were 10.4 million cases of tuberculosis (TB) in 2017 and 1.8 million deaths. The highest prevalence is in Asia, where China, India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Pakistan collectively make up over 50% of the global burden. India ranks second in the total number of patients who have diabetes. While the national prevalence of diabetes mellitus in India is estimated at 7.3%, it is higher at 11.2% in urban regions. Objectives: The aim is to determine the association of pulmonary TB with diabetes and anemia. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care rural hospital in central India. The study population was recruited from the DOTS center in the hospital. Complete blood count and blood sugar were carried out. Results: Among 162 patients, 31 were TB-positive. Anemic patients were more significantly at higher odds (odds ratio [OR]=15.18, 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.5, 66.2) of having TB than non-anemic patients. Similarly, diabetic individuals had higher odds (OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.64, 8.1) than non-diabetic individuals for TB, but this association was not statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, we found a significant association between anemia and TB. Also, there is a probable association between diabetes and TB. So, we suggest that every TB patient be screened for anemia and diabetes.
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The impact of chitosan and ozonated water on the remineralization of white spot lesion in vitro p. 33
Fatima Saeed J Al-Ward, Nada Jafer M H Radhi
Background: Dental caries is a complex, dynamical process that is controlled and initiated by a variety of variables. Objective: This study aimed to examine the ex-vivo remineralization impact of chitosan pretreated with ozonated water on artificially-induced incipient lesion. Materials and Methods: Artificial white spot caries was produced chemically by immersing 44 human teeth individually in demineralizing solution for 72 hours. Then the teeth were subjected to a 10-day pH cycle. Samples were assigned to four groups: (1) Control; (2) Chitosan (3) Ozonated water and (4) Chitosan application after treatment with 0.1 mg/ml ozonated water. Surface microhardness measurements were performed prior and after lesion formation then after treatment. Vickers microhardness tester and scanning electron microscope for representative teeth from the study sample were performed to assess enamel structure quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The study’s findings showed that the sample from group 4 (chitosan after ozonated water treatment) had the highest level of enamel remineralization, and when compared to the control, there was a statistically significant difference(P<0.05). Conclusion: It could be stated that the combination of treatment of chitosan and ozone promoted the remineralization of artificially induced white spot lesion.
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Effect of carbohydrate intake on glycemic control among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending Diabetes and Endocrine Diseases Center in Babel, 2022 p. 41
Ali Mousa Essa Albadri, Jawad K Al-Diwan
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a well-known chronic, metabolic disease characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (BG) due to obsolete or relative insulin deficiency among other pathophysiological defects. Carbohydrates have the greatest effect on BG and restriction of carbohydrate, resulting in greater reductions in BG. Poor glycemic control was related to excessive eating of refined grains. Objective: The aim of this article is to assess sociodemographic characteristics and some anthropometric measures among the study group and to estimate the effect of carbohydrates intake on glycemic control. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients with type 2 diabetes mellites (T2DM) were included in a cross-sectional study. The level of HbA1c was taken as an index to study the glycemic control of patients. Glycemic control was examined, among patients, on the basis of their glycemic index (GI) of foods eaten. A 24-h dietary recall technique was used to analyze the diet of the patients. Results: The study revealed 87% poorly controlled vs. 13% with good control. It was found that starch and refined grains intake was highly associated with glycemic control (P = 0.000). Glycemic control was highly significant in association with the intake of high GI (P = 0.000) foods. In contrast, there was no association with vegetables, fruits, and milk. Added sugar and other sweetened beverages were statistically associated with HbA1c (P = 0.002). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between foods of high GI and poor glycemic control. Starch, refined grains, and added sugar showed a significant association with poor glycemic control.
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Temporomandibular joint disorders among implant patients in relation to bite force p. 48
Rihab Abdul Hussein Ali, Ban Sahib Diab, Fawaz Dawood Alaswad
Background: The installation of dental implants may impair the temporomandibular joint’s ability to operate by altering bite force. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare dental implant patients with partially and fully dentate patients in terms of temporomandibular joint issues related to maximal bite force measurement. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients with dental implants aged 50–60 years old were compared to 90 with partial and 90 with complete dentition patients who were age and gender matched. The incidence and severity of temporomandibular joint problems among patients were assessed using Helkimo anamnestic and clinical dysfunction indices. By using a biting force sensor, maximum occlusal bite force was measured in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions as reported at a US-based corporation. Statistical analysis of data was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, version 22.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois). Results: According to the data, patients in the fully dentate group had larger percentages of Helkimo anamnestic symptom-free and clinically no dysfunction than those patients in implant and partially edentulous groups. Patients in the partially edentulous group were more likely to have Helkimo anamnestic mild and severe symptoms, as well as clinical mild, moderate, and severe dysfunction than patients in the other two groups. These data, however, did not show a statistically significant association. Data analysis revealed that maximum bite force measurements were significantly different between groups for all Helkimo anamnestic and clinical indices. Conclusion: Following oral implant therapy, the function of the temporomandibular joint was affected. In addition, bite force measures decreased as temporomandibular disorder symptoms became more severe.
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Association of TNF-α-308G/A gene polymorphism with coronavirus disease-19 severity p. 54
Qasim S Al-Mayah, Ali Nayyef Umayra, Jabbar Salman Hassan
Background: From the time when the first outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), only a small proportion of infected people developed a severe infection, which is usually a sequel of cytokine overproduction. Genetic variations in the genes of some cytokines can influence the transcription rate of these cytokines. Objective: The going research article tried to evaluate the link between tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-308 gene polymorphism and COVID-19 severity. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 60 patients with COVID-19 and verified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in nasopharyngeal swabs. Patients were categorized into two categories based on the severity of the disease: severe COVID-19 included 30 patients and mild/moderate COVID-19 with 30 patients. The nucleic DNA was obtained from the whole blood, and TNF-α-308G>A polymorphism was genotyped utilizing PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Homozygous (GG) and heterozygous (GA) genotypes were more frequent among severe than among mild cases, although the differences were not significant. At the allelic level, the frequency of a mutant allele (A) was higher in severe than in mild cases with a noticeable distinction (odds ratio = 2.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.1–5.64, P = 0.029). Conclusion: Allele A of TNF-α-308G>A may be deemed a threat for the severity of COVID-19.
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Assessment of the serum level of IL-1B, IL-2, and IL-10 in children infected with Enterobius vermicularis in Babylon province p. 59
Aseel Sekar Naji AL-Bairmani, Hayam Khalis Al-Masoudi
Background: Children are most frequently infected with Enterobius vermicularis, a human-pathogenic intestinal parasite that belongs to the nematodes and causes enterobiasis. Objectives: Evaluation of interleukin (IL)-1B and IL-2 levels in pinworm-infected youngsters is the goal. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 children—including 30 control subjects—participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 2 to 13 years old, and both sexes (50 females and 37 males) were represented. IL-1B, IL-2, and IL-10 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: When using the cellophane tape method, the results showed that 53 (60.92%) clinically infected patients had laboratory examinations, whereas all 87 (100.0%) clinically infected patients had positive diagnostic results. Additionally, the level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1B and IL-2) was slightly higher in the intestinal E. vermicularis, a human-pathogenic organism shown to be somewhat more prevalent in patients than in the control group in this investigation. Thirty children participated in the study. Additionally, the level of IL-10 did not increase much (P = 0.005). Conclusion: There was increasing serum of IL-1B, IL-2, and IL-10 in patients with enterobiasis.
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Circulating cell adhesion molecules level in type 2 diabetes mellitus and its correlation with glycemic control and metabolic syndrome: A case-control study p. 64
Reber Ali Abdullah, Ibtesam Salih Abdulrahman
Background: Early detection of high levels of endothelial biomarkers may help in the design of new strategies to prevent many disease complications, as these biomarkers could enable early prediction of endothelial dysfunction and activation. Objectives: This study aimed to detect the level of circulating cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1) in diabetic patients and to investigate its relation to glycemic control, duration of diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods: Age and sex-matched case-control study design was adopted, the case group involved (type 2 diabetes mellitus on oral hypoglycemic agent only and free from other medical problems), and the control group was (the healthy people without a family history of diabetes mellitus). The samples were collected between November 2021 and May 2022. Both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were measured in both groups. Results: A total of 160 individuals were involved (80 cases and 80 controls). The level of both ICAM-1/VCAM-1 was higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with a value of P <0.0001. There was a strong association between ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and HbA1c. As the duration of the disease increases, the level of these molecules increases. The level of VCAM-1 in patients with metabolic syndrome was very high, whereas for ICAM-1 a slight increase was observed. Conclusion: Circulating cell adhesion molecules can be considered as a marker for detecting the risk of occurrence of diabetes mellitus and the level of these markers can be helpful in follow-up of cases with diabetes and giving a guide for risk of occurrences of metabolic syndrome.
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Relationship of serum ghrelin, amylase and lipase with insulin level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients p. 71
Zahraa Raad Abdulhakeem, Atheer Hameid Odda, Sura Ahmed Abdulsattar
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder known as hyperglycemia, which is brought on by impaired insulin secretion, inefficient insulin utilization, or both. Objectives: This study’s aim was to assess the lipase and amylase amylase pancreatic enzymes levels in sera of (T2DM) patients and healthy control subjects. Materials and Methods: A case-control research was conducted from December 2021 to March 2022 at the Hilla District Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology in Babylon, Iraq.It included a group of 39 patients with type 2 DM and 39 healthy people between the ages of 35 to 60 years. Results: Results were indicating a significant difference in FBS among groups, The mean levels of FBS for DM was (203.7 ± 72.3) mg/dL which was significantly greater than it was for the control group (88.6 ± 7.64) mg/dL,(P ≤ 0.001). The mean of HbA1c for DM (9.5 ± 2.35) was significantly higher than for control (4.9 ± 0.48), P ≤ 0.001.The mean levels of the Amylase and Lipase activity in the DM patients group were (71.4 ± 29.11) and (49.7 ± 14.69) (U/L). When compared to the control group’s mean values, which were (72.7 ± 27.19) and (42.0 ± 7.35) (U/L). The mean levels of Lipase activity were shown a significant difference in T2DM patients compared to the healthy control group, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Increased serum level of lipase without any symptoms of pancreatitis was indicated in type II diabetes mellitus patients.
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Hepcidin level in sera of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus in Babylon province p. 77
Amjed Hameed Salman, Zinah Abbass Ali, Nihad Abdallah Selman
Background: The most prevalent disease in the world, is chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB). It has several causes like, drugs, alcohol consumption, toxicity and auto-immune disease, but in most cases it is caused by hepatitis viruses (viral hepatitis). Hepcidin regulates the body iron negatively by binding to the cellular iron exporter ferroportin in target cells, like macrophages, enterocytes and making its internalization and deprivation, thus reducing iron efflux into plasma causing decrease serum iron level and an elevated in intracellular iron. Materials and Methods: One hundred subjects; 50 diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B virus and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Age ranged between (20–60) years (for patients and control). Hepcidin and ferritin level in serum were estimated by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, while serum iron concentration was calculated by the Siemens Dimension by Direct method (Ferene). Results: In chronic hepatitis B virus group serum hepcidin, ferritin and iron levels significantly elevated compared with control group (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the current study observed significant (p value <0.05) positive correlation for hepcidin with ferritin and iron in (CHB) patients. Conclusion: Among chronic hepatitis B patients in Babylon province, increase the level of some iron regulatory parameters; indicate the significant linked with the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus.
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Follicular fluid thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) levels and ICSI outcomes p. 81
Noor Nadhom Swadi, Ban Jabir Edan, Ali Ibrahim Rahim, Rihab Abass Ali
Background: Whether through spontaneous conception or through the use of assisted reproductive technologies, thyroid dysfunction is prevalent in women of childbearing age and may negatively impact fertility and pregnancy. As follicular fluid (FF) more accurately depicts the milieu surrounding the developing oocyte, it most likely offers a better assessment of exposures that might have an impact on reproductive outcomes. Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation of FF thyroid hormone (TH) (T4 and T3) levels with the intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as an analytic cross-sectional study. Fifty subfertile couples from the in-vitro fertilization center attenders were involved in the study in whom ICSI was done for them and then compared between outcomes in relation to FF-T4 and FF-T3. Results: FF-T4 correlates positively with metaphase II (MII) and 2-PN with a P-value=0.04 and 0.03, respectively, in a statistically significant way, whereas FF-T3 correlates positively with oocyte number: MII in a statistically significant way (P-value=0.01) for both and with 2-PN in a statistically significant way (P-value=0.0). Additionally, there was a significant positive association between FF-T4 and anti-mullerian hormone and follicle stimulating hormone with a P-value of 0.05 and between FF-T3 and E2 with a P-value of 0.02. Conclusion: Folliculogenesis and oogenesis may be significantly influenced by THs. The FF also contains T3 and T4, which could have an immediate impact on the oocyte.
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Genetic study of Gardnerella vaginalis virulence factors isolated from vaginal discharge p. 85
Sawsan Talal Abdullah, Azhar Omran Althahab, Sura Ihsan A Jabuk
Background: Vaginitis is the most prevalent infectious condition affecting the female genital system. Prevalent vaginal infections, namely, bacterial vaginosis. Gardnerella vaginallis is one abacterial genus almost always associated with bacterial vaginosis. Objective: Isolation and identification of G. vaginalis. and Diagnosis some virulence such as Vaginolysin, Sialidase, Phospholipase. Materials and Methods: Collected 100 vaginal samples from women then cultures in Columbia blood agar to isolated G. vaginalis and genetic detection some virulence factors. Results: The findings revealed that 12 (12%) of the samples tested positive for G. vaginalis., including (7%, 26%, 13%, 8%, and 2% isolated from 20 to 50 years age, respectively. The results of PCR showed that out of 12 isolates only 4 (33%), 9 (75%) and, 6 (50%) of G. vaginalis isolates gave positive results to vly, sld and, pho gene respectively gave positive results from 12 G. vaginalis isolates. Conclusions: A healthy vaginal microbiota is considered to be significant for maintaining vaginal health and preventing infections. Bacterial vaginosis is the condition that occurs when the balance of the vaginal flora is dysregulated, and replaced by pathogenic bacteria in the vagina like G. vaginalis.
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Gene expression of TNF-α among Iraqi COVID-19 patients with a different severity status p. 90
Siham Sahib Farhan, Parisa Tahmasebi, Hussein O M Al-Dahmoshi, Hayder Saeed Gatea
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) individuals with varied severity group are affected by the cytokine storm brought on by SARS-CoV2 infection, which is a significant cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Objective: The goal of the current study was to examine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) gene expression in COVID-19 at various severity levels. Materials and Methods: The study includes 140 divided into 105 COVID-19-positive patients (35 for each mild, moderate, and severe group) and 35 COVID-19-negative healthy people as control. COVID-19 positive patients had 46 males and 59 females, while COVID-19-negative healthy people included 16 males and 19 females. The separation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was achieved using Ficoll, and then Ribonucleic acid was extracted and converted to cDNA and the gene expression using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the housekeeping gene. Results: The results revealed non-significant differences at P < 0.05 in age among different COVID-19 groups and control (F-ratio value is 0.54257 and P-value is 0.65397). The results revealed over-expression of TNF-α gene among COVID-19 patients and the relative quantification (fold change) (mean ± standard deviation) values were 6.542 ± 7.29, 5.740 ± 6.41, 7.306 ± 8.85, and 6.580 ± 6.47 for all, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 patients, respectively. One-way analysis of variance test relative quantification (fold change) TNF-α (mean ± standard deviation) for mild, moderate, and severe groups revealed non-significant at P < 0.05, the F-ratio value is 0.39889 and the P-value is 0.672109. Conclusion: The present study concludes upregulation of TNF-α gene in PBMC of COVID-19-positive patients without significant differences among different severity groups.
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An Epidemiological study of Intestinal parasites in children attending the pediatric teaching hospital in the holy city of Karbala, Iraq p. 95
Aseel Kariem Al-Sultany, Kassim Abdulla Hamza Al-Morshidy
Background: Intestinal parasitosis remains an important public health concern worldwide because of its high incidence reached in several countries as well as its nutritional consequences. The role of intestinal parasites in causing morbidity and mortality, as well as the pathogenesis of other infectious diseases, is determined. Intestinal parasitic infection is most common among school-age children and tends to cause high-intensity infection in this age group. Intestinal parasites are divided into two major types: helminths and protozoa. Protozoa are unicellular organisms and belong to the Protista kingdom and can reproduce in the human body which can allow the formation of serious infections. Objectives: The objective of this study was to detect the incidence of intestinal parasites in children attending and hospitalized at Karbala Teaching Hospital in the holy city of Karbala, Iraq. Materials and Methods: Between February 2021 and January 2022, 3748 feces samples from children between the age of 1 and 15 years were tested using both direct smear and acid fast stain test in addition to rapid test techniques. Results: The result showed that the total percentage of infection with intestinal parasites was 13% and recorded five types of intestinal parasites: Entamoeba histolytica (10.54%), Giardia lamblia (2.46%), Cryptosporidium parvum 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana (0.24%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.13%), and Trichomonas hominis (0.03%). Males were more likely to get infected than females, and the incidence of intestinal parasite infection (IPI) changed over the month of the study. Also, the infection with one species has more incidence than two and three species. The age groups of the infected children were likewise impacted by the infection rate. The statistical analysis revealed differences in the percentage of IPI by age and gender of children (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude from the result of the present study that the incidence of infection with E. histolytica is more than that of other intestinal parasites, and intestinal parasites were affected by most epidemiological criteria such as gender, the duration of the study, and age of infected patients.
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Breastfeeding effect on primary teeth emergence in relation to craniofacial growth among Iraqi infants p. 101
Shaimaa Thabit Salih, Ban Sahib Diab
Background: Breastfeeding is more than just nutrition; it can be viewed as a natural orthotic device for the harmonious development of the face. Sucking has an impact on a child’s premaxillary region’s growth, and mandibular movements encourage mandibular growth. Along with the advantages for general health, breastfeeding also helps with the right development of teeth, face muscles, and occlusion. Hence symmetric, well-proportioned face and appropriate occlusion depend on balanced facial growth. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on the timing of teething in relation to craniofacial development. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross sectional comparative study concerning craniofacial growth assessment, with prospective view concerning timing of eruption. Sample was composed of 100 breastfed infants compared with 100 infants depending on formula milk. Clinical examinations and follow-up for teeth emergence was done for whole sample. Results: Breastfeeding was found to be associated with early teeth emergence. Additionally, although, there were no significant differences between facial growth and feeding pattern there was a significant correlation between delay eruption time of primary dentition and facial growth parameters (mandible and maxilla depths) among bottle-feeding group. Conclusion: The current study confirms the effect of breastfeeding on the early teething emergence of primary dentition; however, there were no significant differences between type of feeding and facial growth parameters. While a significant relation between delay eruption time and facial growth parameters (mandible and maxilla depths) was found among bottle-feeding infants.
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Clinical and pathological evaluation of hemp seeds oil effectiveness in the treatment of alopecia areata p. 108
Iqbal Ghalib Farhood, Afraa Mamoori, Zena Hasan Sahib
Background: Alopecia areata is an inflammatory, autoimmune, non-scarring, common patchy, hair-loss condition. Many treatment lines are used to treat alopecia areata, but all are palliative. Alternative medicine, like aromatherapy is expected to promote hair growth, but they are still lacking the scientific basis. Hemp oil is one of the aromatherapies that comprises polyunsaturated fat in approximately 76% involving “essential fatty acids” mainly omega-6 fatty acids” and lesser amount of “omega-3 fatty acids.”Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate hemp seed oil effect in the treatment of patients with alopecia areata. Materials and Methods: This was a clinical trial planned to evaluate the efficacy of hemp seed oil in 20 patients with localized alopecia areata for 2 months. Plant material is hemp oil extract, applied at night daily for 2 months. Regrowth of terminal hair was evaluated by clinically and by trichoscope examination to evaluate the pathologic changes response. The assessment was done at 0, 4, and 8 weeks of the treatment. Results: After 8 weeks of the treatment, the response was marked in five (25%) patients, moderate in eight (40%) patients, and mild in two (10%) patients. Five (25%) patients revealed no response. There was a significant increase in the response of patients who were under the marked improvement group between 4 and 8 weeks of treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Hemp seed oil can be considered as a promising therapeutic agent for localized alopecia areata. Additional clinical trials are advised to adjust the dose and determine the period of time, which is required to obtain a better result.
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The implication of left ventricular mechanical dispersion as a risk predictor for ventricular arrhythmias in patients with mitral valve prolapse p. 112
Riyadh Mustafa Murtadha Al-Shehristani, Radhwan Readh Abdulhamza, Abbas Fadhil Al Hashimi
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is considered a benign disorder, although it can be accompanied by ventricular arrhythmias (VA). Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) can be a promising tool for detecting early derangement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether the left ventricular (LV) mechanical dispersion (MD) derived by STE can be considered a predictor for occurrence of VA in patients with MVP. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 63 patients with MVP (37 women and 29 men) presented with palpitation. The patients were divided into two groups: arrhythmic patients with VA (Group 1) and non-arrhythmic patients (Group 2). All of them underwent comprehensive clinical and electrocardiographic examination, cardiac rhythm assessment by Holter monitoring, and comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation including speckle tracking technique. Results: VA were detected in 32 of 63 patients. Ventricular bigeminy was the most common type of VA in arrhythmic patients. Unlike other echocardiographic parameters, the LV MD and the mitral annular disjunction (MAD) were found to be significantly higher in arrhythmic versus non-arrhythmic MVP patients (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean LV MD was higher in patients with frequent ventricular ectopics versus infrequent ones (P = 0.003). The cutoff value for LV MD was 35.1 ms or higher (sensitivity 87%, specificity 71%) and for MAD it was 2.7 mm or higher (sensitivity 82%, specificity 60%) in predicting VA in patients with MVP. Conclusions: LV MD in addition to MAD can be implemented in risk prediction for VA in patients with MVP presenting with palpitations.
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Immunological impact of Ricinus communis leaves extract on isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells p. 120
Reem Akram Naji, Russell Issam AL-Daher, Doaa Adil Abood, Kaiser N Madlum
Background: Plants are the source of many important drugs. Ricinus communis is utilized as a traditional folkloric remedy for the treatment of a wide extend of diseases around the world. Large number of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenes, and phenolic compounds that have an established anticancer, antimicrobial, and immunological impact presence in many plant families. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunological impact of R. communis leaves extract on human immune response using isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). Materials and Methods: Cells were isolated using the gradient centrifugation method and treated with R. communis leaves extract at different concentrations, and then, the cytotoxic effect was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the immunologic effect was estimated by measuring the cytokine levels via the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Results: Plant extract showed a low cytotoxic effect on PBMNC at therapeutic doses and high doses (1000 µg/mL) used. Plant extract caused a significant reduction in the levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17 at higher doses and increased IFN-ɣ at both doses used. Conclusion: R. communis leaves extract appears to be safe for medical uses and has immunomodulatory effects.
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Zinc and copper in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients on different iron chelators in Basrah: A case-control study p. 124
Balqees Kadhim Hasan, Wasan Hameed Saud
Background: Disturbances induced by chelating agents in the essential metal ions, including zinc and copper, can adversely impact the health of patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT). Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different iron chelators on the levels of zinc and copper among patients with TDT. Materials and Methods: This case-control study involved 94 patients with TDT and 59 healthy controls, their ages ranged from 5 to 37 years. Patients with TDT were subdivided into two groups: 51 patients were on deferasirox and 43 were on deferoxamine. Blood samples were collected from all participants for complete blood counts and serum ferritin, iron, zinc, and copper levels, which were determined by spectrophotometry. Results: Serum iron, ferritin, and zinc levels were significantly higher among patients with TDT, while the Hb level was significantly lower than that in the healthy population (P < 0.05). Serum copper levels did not differ significantly between the groups. A high frequency of zinc deficiency was reported among patients with TDT on deferasirox (56.9%) and control group (47.5%), compared to 16.3% for patients with TDT on deferoxamine (P < 0.001). For serum copper, most of them had normal levels (81.4%–90.2%). Patients on deferoxamine had significantly higher serum zinc and copper levels than those on deferasirox and control group, although the mean serum values were within the normal range of values for the three groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Low serum zinc was reported in a considerable percentage of patients with TDT receiving deferasirox compared to those receiving deferoxamine, while serum copper was within normal range in the majority of patients with TDT.
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The effect of coenzyme Q10 on dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress in rats testes p. 130
Ahmed T Alahmar, Aqeel Handil Tarish Al Jothery, Qasim Jawad Al-Daami, Ahmed Abbas, Alaa Tariq Shakir Al-Hassnawi
Background: Oxidative stress is a contributing factor in 30%–80% of infertile men. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coenzyme Q10 on dexamethasone-induced oxidative stress in rats testes. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of four: group 1 (control) received 1 mL of distilled water daily orally; group 2 received dexamethasone 0.2 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally; group 3 received coenzyme Q10 30 mg/kg/day orally; and group 4 received dexamethasone and coenzyme Q10 via the same routes. Testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities as well as testicular histopathological changes were compared among groups. Results: Although testicular SOD was lower in groups 3 and 4, dexamethasone and coenzyme Q10 treatment did not significantly alter TAC, SOD, CAT, or histopathological features of rats testes. Conclusion: Dexamethasone (0.2 mg/kg/day) and coenzyme Q10 (30 mg/kg/day) may have no impact on gonadal oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, or spermatogenesis in rats testes with these doses.
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Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Uncaria tomentosa extract: In vitro and in vivo studies p. 136
Enass Najem Oubaid, Ahmed Rahmah Abu-Raghif, Israa Mahdi Al-Sudani
Background: Uncaria tomentosa is a traditional medicinal herb with antiviral, antioxidant, immunostimulating, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in vitro and in vivo and the phytochemical analysis of Uncaria tomentosa. Materials and Methods: The plant extract was screened for phytochemical compounds and antioxidant capacity in vitro using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and in vivo using acetic acid-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in rats by transrectal administration (5 mL/kg) of 4% (v/v) acetic acid. Forty adult albino rats were divided into four groups: control group, acetic acid group, acetic acid + sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg/day) group, and acetic acid + Uncaria tomentosa extract (250 mg/kg/day) group. After inducing colitis, sulfasalazine and Uncaria tomentosa extract were given orally for 10 days. Data were statistically analyzed, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant throughout the study. Results: Preliminary phytochemical study showed that Uncaria tomentosa extract contains flavonoids, phenols alkaloids, saponin, and terpenoids. In the DPPH assay, the extract exhibited considerable antioxidant capacity in a dose-dependent manner. Also, Uncaria tomentosa extract dramatically decreased oxidative stress parameters, such as myeloperoxidase enzyme activity and malondialdehyde in colonic tissue. Moreover, Uncaria tomentosa treatment attenuated macroscopic colonic scores and histopathological changes induced by acetic acid. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that Uncaria tomentosa extract could be a source of natural antioxidants and may have a therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis.
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Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics associated with hookah smoking and alcohol consumption among medical students in Najaf, Iraq p. 143
Sarah Kadhim Abbood, Ali Mohammed Abd Alridha, Karrar Mohammed Al-Gburi, Noorulhuda Ali Mohsin, Afnan Saud Ismael, Ahmed Basim Ali, Ali Talib Salih
Background: Reporting patterns of hookah smoking (HS) and alcohol consumption (AC) in Iraq are limited. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of HS and AC among medical undergraduates in Najaf, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A pilot-tested online self-administered questionnaire was used to conduct a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sampling followed the “snowball” technique. The associations of HS and AC with the participants’ characteristics, perceived risk of harm, motives, and consequences were tested. Results: The preceding month’s prevalence of HS and AC (at least once) was 13.8% and 2%, respectively. The age at initiation was mainly <15 years (59.3% of smokers and 92.3% of drinkers). The presence of a friend who drinks or smokes and skipping life problems were statistically significant motives for the habits (P-value < 0.05). Smoking mainly caused problems with parents (10.1%) and poor performance at school or work (7%), whereas AC mainly caused problems with teachers (8.5%) and fights (5.2%). Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of HS and AC among medical undergraduates in Najaf, Iraq, was reported, and several associated characteristics were discerned. The findings help develop targeted interventions to protect future generations of medical professionals from the hazards of HS and AC.
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Comparative in vitro study regarding the effect of 2% and 6% titanium tetrafluoride on demineralized human enamel p. 154
Amjed Kamel Al-Hassnawi, Nada Jafer Radhi
Background: Dental caries is the most common disease of the childhood and adulthood where the mineral contents of the enamel of the teeth begin to lose due to acids attacks by demineralization process. It can be prevented by application of fluoride that increased the mineral content of the enamel and made it highly resistant to acid demineralization. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) in different concentrations and frequencies on surface microstructure and chemical structure of artificially demineralized enamel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 35 premolar teeth: seven teeth randomly selected remained sound (five for energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis and two for scan electronic microscopy, whereas the remaining 28 teeth were divided into four treatment groups (n = 7): (1) control negative (deionized water), (2) control positive (acidulated phosphate fluoride gel), (3) 6% TiF4 solution once daily, (4) 2% TiF4 solution three times daily. Chemical structure and surface microstructure analyses were made for sound, after demineralization then after treatments. Results: The fluoride content was greater in 6% TiF4, whereas the calcium content was greater in control positive followed by 6% TiF4 then 2% TiF4 groups. Surface microstructure revealed uniform, smooth, glaze-like surface with no irregularities in 6% TiF4 while localized areas of glaze-like depositions were noted in 2% TiF4. Conclusions: The TiF4 showed better minerals contents and uniform surface in its higher concentration and the frequency of applications was not important as concentration.
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Microbial distribution and secretory IgA level among crossbite patients at an early stage of comprehensive orthodontic treatment p. 160
Sarah Falih Hasan Al-khafaji, Zainab Khudhur Ahmed Al-mahdi, Wisam W Alhamadi
Background: Crossbite is any discrepancy in the relationship between the upper and lower teeth. Crossbites have a relationship with oral microorganisms, such as S. mutans and lactobacillus infections. Viral infections can spread to the oral cavity especially its soft tissue especially herpes simplex virus & cytomegalovirus. Secretory immunoglobulin represents a factor for acquired immunity in the oral cavity which is associated with oral infection and variation. Objectives: Isolation of microbes from crossbite patients, identifying by molecular techniques, determining sIgA level, and selecting appropriate antibiotics for the most common microbe. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 (30 samples of saliva and swab before Orthodontic Treatment and 30 samples of saliva after Orthodontic) during the period from October 2021 to April 2022, Sample were taken from patients and microbiological identification by microscopical and biochemical tests. An antibiotic sensitivity test for S. mutans. Genetic identification was detected in the S. mutans samples by using specificity Sm479 primers, and HCMV primers for cytomegalovirus. Secretory IgA was determined by ELISA Kit. Results: A number of gram-positive bacteria were more than gram-negative (51% and 49%) respectively. The S. mutans and Lactobacillus are the most frequent among the other species, followed by Candida, Klebsiella, and S. epidermidis. 53% in male, while 47% in female, and age group (13­15) was the most prevalent among samples 53%. Regarding S. mutans, the highest sensitive rate is Erythromycin 81%, followed by Amoxiclav 57%, Vancomycin 52%, and Nalidixic acid 43%. Conclusion: Most infectious cases were in ages (14-15) years. S. mutans is more prevalent among bacterial infections, molecular detection by PCR more specifically for S.mutans and CMV virus, sIgA level non-significant inverse correlations between age and sIgA level before treatment, while significant inverse correlation between age and sIgA level after treatment, and S. mutans, reported the highest sensitive rate is Erythromycin (81%), followed by Amoxiclav, Vancomycin,and Nalidixic acid.
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Study the effect of a fixed orthodontic appliance on the oral microbial cavity p. 168
Asaad Kareem Al-nafaee, Rasha Jasim Al-warid, Kasem Ahmed Abeas
Background: Orthodontics is that branch of dentistry specialty dealing with diagnosis, prevention, and correction of malocclusion aiming to enhance oral health, dental function, and esthetics. The presence of a fixed orthodontic appliance within the oral cavity can alter the microbial balance and so the composition of dental plaque. However, the presence of a fixed appliance alters the physiological characteristics of the oral cavity, causing impaired hygiene, a raise in dental plaque collection, and a delay in the spontaneous physiological processes of tooth cleaning that result in pathogenic bacteria colonization, which causes gingival inflammation, periodontal support degradation, and enamel surface alterations. Objective: The study’s objectives were isolated, identification, and molecular detection of microbes associated with orthodontic appliance patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 study samples (68 case; 20 control), 29 males and 59 females, aged 14–35 years, underwent fixed orthodontics during the initial stage of treatment. The samples were cultured on enrichment media and selective media, including mitis-salivarius agar, Mitis-Salivarius Bacitracin agar, Lactobacillus MRS agar, Eosin Methylene Blue agar, and Mannitol agar. They cultured in aerobic and anaerobic (10% CO2) conditions. Results: The positive samples were then purified and identified using morphological and biochemical tests. Among the microbial species gram-positive bacteria accounted for 82.3%, gram-negative bacteria 16.2%, and fungi 1.5%. Our results show that on one hand, gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus mutans make higher percentage (48.5%) compared to other types. On the other hand, the Escherichia coli with 11.7% is the highest percentage of gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion: Bacteria colonization of orthodontic patients was found to be remarkably high compared to that of controls. Finally, the most common bacteria are S. mutans identify using PCR utilizing Sm.479.F/R primer combination.
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Evaluation of the salivary levels of interleukin-17 and galectin-3 in patients with periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus p. 175
Samaa Mouyed Abdulmajeed, Maha Sh Mahmood
Background: Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are both considered as a chronic disease that affect many people and have an interrelationship in their pathogenesis. Objective: The aim is to evaluate the salivary levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) and galectin-3 in patients with periodontitis and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: The samples were gathered from 13 healthy (control group) and 75 patients split into 3 groups, 25 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy periodontium (T2DM group), 25 patients with generalized periodontitis (P group), and 25 patients with generalized periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-T2DM group). Clinical periodontal parameters were documented. The concentration of IL-17 and galectin-3 in salivary samples was estimated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Result: The concentration of IL-17 in the T2DM group (388.612 ± 120.111 pg/mL), the P group (443.887 ± 69.188 pg/mL), and the P-T2DM group (532.769 ± 137.673 pg/mL) showed higher values than the control group (292.079 ± 62.356 pg/mL) with a significant difference at (P < 0.05). Also, the P-T2DM group showed higher values than the P group and the T2DM group with a significant difference (P < 0.05). The concentration of galectin-3 in the T2DM group (2.409 ± 0.147 ng/mL), the P group (2.699 ± 0.386 ng/mL), and the P-T2DM group (2.568 ± 0.285 ng/mL) showed higher values than the control group (1.888 ± 0.356 ng/mL) with a significant difference (P < 0.05). The P group showed a higher value than the T2DM group with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary IL-17 and galectin-3 levels might be used as a biomarker for periodontitis.
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Occurrence of class 1, 2, and 3 integrons among multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Babylon Province, Iraq p. 181
Ahmed Abdulkareem Almuttairi, Anwar A Abdulla
Background: Clinical management of bacterial infections has faced significant difficulties in recent years due to the advent and spread of multiple drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Worldwide, nosocomial infections are brought on by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a clinically significant Pseudomonas species. Objectives: This research aimed to identify class 1, 2, and 3 integrons in P. aeruginosa in Babylon, Iraq. Materials and Methods: From February 2022 to October 2022, 131 isolates from various sites including (burn, wound, and urine) were collected from different hospitals in Babylon Province for both genders and ages. These isolates were identified using traditional techniques as well as the Vitek 2 system (bioMerieux, France). Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were subjected to disc diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Class 1, 2, and 3 integron-specific primers were used in the polymerase chain reaction technique for the molecular identification of integron genes. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates that were 131 (100%) had integron class 1. On the contrary, only five (3.81%) contained a class 2 integron. There was no presence of class 3 integron in any isolate. Conclusion: The MDR P. aeruginosa was highly prevalent (100%) and this suggested that the availability of class 1 integrons in our area was alarmingly high, showing the need for epidemiological monitoring.
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Facts and fictions about Toxoplasma gondii in women of Misan province p. 188

Background: Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is one of the most common protozoa worldwide that infects human and animals. Because of lack of data about the facts and myths of T. gondii infection in human Iraq, this study was aimed to define and answered all the related questions in a scientific knowledge manner. Materials and Methods: A survey study was conducted among women to assess their knowledge about facts and myths of toxoplasmosis in the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq, from November 1, 2018 to July 30, 2022. All women answered all the questions. A total of 6055 women, aged from 18 to 68 years, were enrolled, only comprising women who lived in Misan. A questionnaire was constructed upon the objectives and involved questions correlated to personal, demographic, social, economic, and educational information. The questionnaire investigated facts and myths concerning T. gondii. Results: All women completed the survey lists with a response rate of 100%. The mean age was 41.53 ± 20.74 years. Most individuals (3133, 51.74%) were grouped to 18–40 years of age. In terms of the knowledge of toxoplasmosis, women who knew a person with toxoplasmosis (23.15%), though it affects men (47.46%), thought that it is an infectious disease (86.16%), thought that it can be prevented (68.22%), thought that it can be treated or cured (82.84%), thought that it is a hereditary condition (59.64%), thought that cats are a causative agent of toxoplasmosis (74.15%) and thought that it transmits by intersexual course (34.32%). Concerning risk knowledge, women who thought the risk of toxoplasmosis transport by eating unhealthy food are 70.45%, women who thought the risk is raised when wearing tight underwear are 42.25%, women who thought the risk was raised with old age are 49.58%, women who thought the risk could be raised when they use contraceptives are 31.11%, women who thought the risk increased with pregnancy are 84.23%, and women who thought the risk could be raised with smoking and alcohol intake are 45.70%. Of 6055 women, a total of 5578 (92.12%) women said that toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease. About 96.10% of the sample said that it transmits by cats. Almost always, 99.45% of women thought that it is a cause of abortion, stillbirth, and congenital anomalies. In addition, only 16.99% of women in this survey know that there are over two million new cases of toxoplasmosis in the world annually. About 11.33% of women thought that toxoplasmosis cases are asymptomatic whereas others thought that they have a fever, gastro intestinal tract symptoms, genito urinary tract symptoms, and ophthalmologic symptoms. Conclusions: Many facts and myths can affect the knowledge of women about toxoplasmosis. In kinds of literature, there are no real modes for studying myths about infectious diseases in particular toxoplasmosis which may be of benefit in preventing and managing processes.
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Prevalence of tuberculosis infection and treatment outcome in Babylon Province of Iraq: A retrospective study p. 194
Taif Saad Jasim, Amer Hayat Khan, Nada Khazal K Hindi
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) mainly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) and also can impact other parts of the body (extrapulmonary TB). Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to experience the prevalence of tuberculosis and the treatment outcome rate in Babylon, Iraq. Materials and Methods: A cohort retrospective study was carried out at the health center for asthma and allergies from January 2016 to March 2021 in the Babylon Province, Iraq. This study sighted on the characteristics of TB patients; age, sex, site of tuberculosis, and treatment outcome. Results: There were 1774 cases of TB registered in the medical records of the health center in Babylon, Iraq. As a result, we found that female patients represented 53.4% of patients, as compared with male patients who constituted 46.6% of patients. The age group between 61 years old and older recorded the highest percentage (n = 359; 20.2%) and the less percentage of those who are <10 years old (n =122; 6.9%). Site of infection, pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 992; 56.0%), and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (n = 782; 44.0%). Treatment outcomes include treatment complete (63.7%), cure (24.1%), death (3.1%), default (0.5%), fail (0.3%), transfer (0.1%), and other (8.1%). Which has a successful treatment percentage (87.8%) and an unsuccessful treatment (12.1%). Conclusions: This study concluded that females were more likely to be infected with tuberculosis than males. Additionally, the success rate of treatment was (87.8%), while the unsuccessful rate was (12.1%). While age group that the highest percentage was noted among those 61 years old and older (n = 359; 20.2%).
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Expression of circulatory Interleukin-6 concentration associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa persistence in recurrent urinary tract infections p. 201
Maysaa S M Al-shukri, Bareq A Al-lateef, Mohammad Ridha Judi
Background: The main superfamily cytokine member is interleukin-6 (IL-6). IL-6, promptly produced in response to infections and tissue injuries, contributes to host defense through the stimulation of acute phase responses, hematopoiesis, and immune reactions. Objectives: To investigate the role of IL-6 as a biomarker in recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs). The real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed by using specific primers with reference gene GAPDH and the target genes IL-6. Materials and Methods: A case–control study was done in Babylon city hospital from February 2021 to March 2022. A total of 110 patients with RUTIs with different age and sex, and healthy individuals as control group were enrolled in this study. Midstream urine was taken for culturing and identification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients and the secreted IL-6 levels were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RNA was extracted for gene expression. Results: The expression of IL-6 was increased more than % 30-fold in UTIs compared with control group. Also, the results found that serum concentrations of IL-6 detected by ELISA assay showed significant differences at P < 0.001 for the patients compared with control group. Conclusions: Interleukin-6 gene expression shows up regulation in RUTI caused by P. aeruginosa.
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Investigation of the salivary antioxidants and oxidative damage among smokers and non-smokers with dental caries p. 206
Hadeel Adnan Oda, Hanan Selman Hessan, Ahmed Ghanim Al Helal
Background: Salivary oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the progression of dental caries. However, evidence from previous studies provides equivocal results with some data supported the link between dental caries and salivary oxidative stress, while others did not find any relationship. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the levels of salivary oxidative stress among smokers and non-smokers with dental caries. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: One hundred adult males, who visited the Conservative and Operative Clinics at the College of Dentistry, Babylon University, Iraq for the period from November 2021 until April 2022, were recruited in this study and were randomly subdivided into three groups; G1: smokers with dental caries, N = 35; G2: non-smokers with dental caries, N = 35; G3: non-smokers without dental caries (control), N = 30. Markers of salivary total antioxidants (TAC) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in all studied groups. The potential correlations between these markers and other factors such as smoking duration, number of smoked cigarettes per day, and subject’s age were also measured. Result: The levels of TAC were significantly (P = 0.01) greater in patients with dental caries compared to those levels in a control group, while the levels of salivary MDA were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) differed among all studied groups. Smoking had no significant (P ≥ 0.05) effects on both markers of oxidative stress (TAC and MDA). All measured correlations between makers of oxidative stress and smoking duration, number of smoked cigarettes per day, and subject’s age were insignificant (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusions: Salivary antioxidants may be involved in the progression of dental caries. However, further studies are needed to establish whether markers of oxidative stress (TAC and MDA) are the causes or results of dental caries.
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Cytokines profile in patients with hydatidosis in Babylon Province, Iraq p. 212
Ahmed Mohammed A Al-Mosawi, Fadhil Farhood M Al-Joborae, Huda Fadhil Al-Joborae, Mohammed Abd Kadhum Al-Saadi, Alaa H Al-Charrakh
Background: Hydatidosis is caused by infection with the larval stage of the Cestode Echinococcus granulosus. Objective: In vitro quantitative evaluation of interleukin 6 (IL-6), INF-gamma (INF-γ), and CD4 and CD8 molecules during hydatidosis infection and control group. Materials and Methods: In vitro quantitative determination of IL-6, INF-γ, and CD4 and CD8 molecules in serum of hydatidosis-infected patients using serological test Sandwich-ELISA. Results: The result showed a significant difference in serum IL-6 in patients with hydatidosis than in the control group (38.753 ± 18.307 pg/mL) and 11.752 ± 3.328, respectively; the differences were highly significant (P < 0.0001). The mean of serum CD4 molecules concentration was 5.475 ± 2.335 (ng/mL) and 3.154 ± 1.027 (ng/mL) for controls groups with P value ≤ 0.0001, while serum concentration of soluble CD8 was 2.977 ± 1.321 (ng/mL) and 1.152 ± 0.699 (ng/mL) for control group with (P value ≤ 0.0001). The ratio of CD4/CD8 was 1.841 in hydatidosis infection patients compared with control group (2.737). Conclusion: Immunological parameters included in the present study (IL-6, IFN-γ, CD4 and CD8) showed high levels among patients with hydatidosis infection compared to healthy control.
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Histological changes in liver and cardiac rat tissues after exposure to chitosan nanoparticles orally p. 215
Liqaa Oday Ali, Hydar M Khalfa, Rasha Al Sahlanee, Hayder L F Almsaid
Background: As safe natural biopolymer, chitosan is resulting from chitin deacetylation. Owing to its antimicrobial and antifungal effects, chitosan and/or its biological derivatives have gained extensive interest. The antibacterial activity of chitosan exhibits only in a low pH medium since its solubility above pH 6 is poor. Several factors affect chitosan antibacterial action such as chitosan type, polymerization degree, and certain other chemicophysical features. Objectives: The current study was intended to inspect the chitosan injury on hepatic and myocardial cells in rats in different concentrations. Materials and Methods: Chitosan was purchased and prepared at various concentrations. Laboratory Wistar albino rats were orally fed with different concentrations of chitosan. Histological examination of rat liver and cardiac tissues was performed accordingly. Results: A noticeable increase in animal weight is seen as the concentration of chitosan increases. Normal histological appearance with slight hemorrhaging and abnormal histological appearance with more abundant hemorrhaging and cellular vacuolation were present in liver tissues. Profound histological damage with more abundant hemorrhaging and lymphocytic infiltration along with sinusoid enlargement in the liver as well as districted nuclei was also present. Cardiac tissues were less affected by changes in chitosan concentration. Liver histological changes are attributed to the metabolic breakdown of chitosan in the liver. A noticeable decrease in vascular thickness is seen in both cardiac and liver vascular networks. Conclusion: The study found that chitosan has robust cytotoxic influences on certain organs. However histological damage is more prominent and is seen in rat liver tissues. Histological damage is confirmed by the abnormality of histological and cellular damage seen.
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Erratum: Single-fiber Electromyography in Patients with Diabetic Neuropathy p. 219

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Erratum: Study the Profile of Some Antioxidant Markers in Diabetic Mellitus and Non-diabetic Patients with Cardiovascular Disease p. 220

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Erratum: Assessment of Electroencephalographic Changes and Clinical Characteristics among Patients with Substance-related Disorder p. 221

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