• Users Online: 987
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1-6

Platelet-rich fibrin potential role in periodontal regeneration: A review study

Department of Periodontics, College of dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Submission08-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance30-Oct-2022
Date of Web Publication29-Apr-2023

Correspondence Address:
Sarah Al-Rihaymee
Department of Periodontics, College of dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_237_22

Rights and Permissions

Periodontitis is a persistent bacterial-causing disease which damages the supporting periodontium of the teeth. The complexity of supporting tissue structure makes the regeneration a challenge for periodontists. Early investigations were focused on discovering therapeutic substitutes that are biocompatible, simple to prepare and economic. This might cause a local release of growth factors that accelerate the healing process of the soft and hard tissue. Recently, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has received a wide attention as a biocompatible regenerative material in both dental and medical fields. PRF is a natural fibrin-derived biomaterial, and it is easy to obtain. It can be gotten from individual blood without the use of any external anticoagulant. The principle of PRF technology use in the regeneration process is to use patients’ blood to extract all the growth factors which promote regeneration of tissue by accelerating the healing process. The main objective of this review is to concisely illustrate PRF and its contribution in periodontal regeneration.

Keywords: Growth factors, periodontal regeneration, platelet concentrates, PRF

How to cite this article:
Al-Rihaymee S, Mahmood MS. Platelet-rich fibrin potential role in periodontal regeneration: A review study. Med J Babylon 2023;20:1-6

How to cite this URL:
Al-Rihaymee S, Mahmood MS. Platelet-rich fibrin potential role in periodontal regeneration: A review study. Med J Babylon [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Jun 11];20:1-6. Available from: https://www.medjbabylon.org/text.asp?2023/20/1/1/375117

  Introduction Top

Periodontal diseases are complicated and multifactorial diseases by which attachment loss and destruction of supporting bone and cementum are associated. The aims of periodontal clinical therapy are eradication of inflammation, inhibit disease progression and regeneration of the lost periodontium. Periodontal regeneration is a complex multi-connected biological event such as cells adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and migration. One of utilized materials in periodontal regeneration is graft which is either autogenous or alloplastic.[1] Even though, various biomaterials applied in the autogenous and allogenic bone grafts as well as periodontal regeneration application, no specific graft material is deemed the best for the intra-bony defect’s treatment. Several drawbacks associated with graft application. First, it requires second surgical procedure and result in gingival recession. Second, may provoke antibodies host reaction. Third, it is expensive and long post-operative time and discomfort. Therefore, utilization of PRF in periodontal regeneration field are advantageous for the patient and the practitioner.[2]

PRF consists of natural fibrin matrix containing a high concentration of both platelets and growth factors.[3],[4] PRF exhibits a complex architecture with distinctive mechanical characteristics. The structure is obtained from a patient’s blood with no anticoagulant or biochemical agents. PRF acts locally by quickly stimulating different cells recruitment, proliferation, and/or differentiation. PRF exerts its effect on gingival fibroblasts, endothelial cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Thus, PRF affects tissue repair and regeneration.[5],[6] PRF is promising regenerative biomaterials in periodontics field for several reasons. First, PRF can heal wound in very fast pace.[7],[8] Second, it can be gotten using simple and inexpensive preparation method. Third, exogenous compounds (e.g., calcium chloride or bovine thrombin) are not required. Moreover, PRF is collected from patient’s own blood in PRF preparation. Thereby, blood-transmitted diseases is reduced or eliminated. It is important to determine how the released growth factors from PRF may be equivalent to the food and drug administration (FDA)–approved recombinant BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein2) and PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) proteins.[9],[10],[11],[12] The FDA approved- proteins may have several drawbacks regarding expenses and unfavorable effects among potential swelling, lower stability, and biocompatibility. Thereby, the use of autogenous PRF is preferred.[13],[14] Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) was the key in utilization of maxillofacial and oral surgery.[2]

  Periodontal Wound Healing and Tissue Regeneration Top

Periodontal wound healing process is an order of complex events that involves interaction between epithelial cells, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. While the wound is healing, the disruption of vasculature triggers platelet aggregation and fibrin formation. Several growth factors are released from platelets into tissues, through molecular signals by which cytokines and growth factors mediate.[15] The presence of cytokines and growth factors in platelets perform vital roles in wound healing and inflammation.[16] Furthermore, platelets release fibronectin, fibrin, and vitronectin which act as a matrix as well as adhesion molecules for well-organized cell migration.[17] The use of platelets as therapeutic agent enhances tissue repair particularly in periodontal wound healing.

  Platelets and Platelet Concentrates Top

Platelets are non-nucleated blood cells derived from bone marrow precursor (megakaryocytes) with lifetime 8-10 days in blood.[15] Platelets which are specialized blood fragments have essential tasks in hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing. Adherence and aggregation of platelets in a severed vessel form a plug and initiate the coagulation cascade. Activation of the alpha granules of platelets upon contact with connective tissue results in numerous growth factors releasing, for instance, (Vascular endothelial, Platelet Derived and transforming-β) growth factors. These growth factors are critical to wound healing in initial stages and results in a gene sequence expression which guides collagen synthesis, cellular proliferation, and osteoid production

  Classification of Platelet Concentrates Top

  • Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): is the first-generation platelet concentrates. Even though it revealed relatively positive results,[18] the risk of bovine thrombin-cross infection and complex preparation protocol were drawbacks.

  • Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) named as its inventer who was Choukroun’s platelet-rich fibrin.

  •   PRF Vs. PRP Top

    During the last years while the discovery of PRF, the utilization of platelet concentrates has markedly raised.[19] However, it is essential to mention that blood growth factors used in medical field for more than two decades.[20] These earliest efforts to use concentrated growth factors of platelet were based on the fact that gain extra amounts of platelets promote wound healing.[21] These principles were later recognized as “platelet rich plasma” (PRP). PRP, an autologous thrombocyte concentration, was developed in 1990s as an improvement factor for periodontal tissue healing.[22] The main purpose of PRP use was to collect great amounts of platelets and their associated growth factors in highest quantity and re-use them throughout surgery.

    Comparison between PRF and PRF can be illustrated as follows.

      Standard Protocols Top

    i.  PRF: One centrifugation cycle with less time is required. Using a centrifugation machine with 3,000 revolution per 60 seconds, PRF was immediately centrifuged for 10 minutes.[23] The following are the main difference points between PRF and PRP.

    ii. PRP: Two centrifugation cycles are needed. After PRP preparation, around 45 minutes were needed to place PRP in the surgical defect.[24] Ten minutes at 1,200 rpm (160 g) were recommended in the first spin in which the red blood cells were separated from the rest of the blood. In the second spin (i.e., concentration spin), it was recommended to spin 3,200 rpm (1,200 g) for 10 minutes after aspirated fluid was added. The big role of the second spin is to separate and compact white blood cells, the platelets, and a few number of remaining red blood cells from the plasma, which is clear straw yellow in color (platelet poor plasma [PPP]).[25],[26]

  • The incorporation of leukocytes in PRF is one of the key difference between PRF and previously utilized PRP.[27]

  • The lack of anti-coagulants resulting in a fibrin matrix is a major difference between PRF and PRP.

  • Bone grafting material is needed in PRP to maintain volume.

  • PRF provides a reduction in the amount of spent time and it is considered less technique sensitive.[23]

  • The aforementioned limitations of the use of PRP have been reported even though the huge amount of attention PRP attained since it was first used in periodontitis. Due to the lengthy technique, extra anti-coagulant factors were required to prevent clotting. The inhibitors of wound healing used were bovine thrombin or CaCl2 or both.[28] These drawbacks limited the use of PRP in complex maxillofacial surgeries.[29]

      PRF Definition and Mechanisms of Action Top

    PRF is a second generation of platelet concentrate with three-dimensional natural biological structure due to its natural concentrate without the use of any anticoagulants.[16],[17] PRF contains a condensed fibrin network which has cytokines, leukocytes and structural glycoproteins.[30] The fibrin network also contains growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- β1) glycoproteins (e.g. thrombospondin-1), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).[31] PRF Leukocytes release growth factors,[31] regulate the immune system,[4] and have anti-infectious properties.[32] PRF Leukocytes play a part in a matrix remodeling during wound healing. The slow polymerization of PRF result in a physiologic architecture encouraging for wound healing.[31]

    The proposed mechanism of PRF during the initial stage of wound healing is that local delivery of platelet concentrate result in activation of platelet alpha granules. Platelet alpha granules release ample amounts of growth factors, for example, (transforming, insulin like, fibroblast and platelet derived) growth factors.[31],[33] All these growth factors act as a booster for healing events which include proliferation, migration, and differentiation of cell from nearby tissue.[3],[34]

      Effect of PRF on Periosteum Top

    PRF stimulates the periosteum blood supply. The direct contact of periosteum with PRF significantly improves the amount of the blood to the keratinized soft tissue included its thickness and blood supply to the underlying bone. This activity is PRF main benefit, by means of growth factors release stimulation over a long period.[35]

    The augmentation with PRF alone is associated with high success rate without major complications as well as the density of the regenerated bone in defects that demonstrated complete resolution was higher than that of defects that showed partial resolution.[36]

      Major Cell Types in PRF Top

    Leukocytes, platelets, macrophages, granulocytes, and neutrophils are the major cells found within PRF. After the centrifugation cycle, most of the cells are entrapped within the fibrin matrix. The incorporation of leukocytes in PRF is the major difference between PRP and PRF. The autologous cells within PRF, particularly leukocytes, regard as a key of regeneration. major advantages of leukocytes can be addressed as follows:

  • They show resistance to pathogen and function in immune regulation.[37],[38]

  • They perform a substantial role during integration between host tissue and biomaterial.[15]

  • Upon mentioned benefits of leukocytes, removal of third molars revealed to ten times reduction in osteomyelitis infections, swelling and postoperative pain. Furthermore, more wound healing after PRF placement into extraction sockets is noticed.[39],[40]

      Growth Factors in the Blood Top

    1) Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a superfamily of more than 30 members released by platelets. TGF-β1, which facilitates immune regulation, tissue repair, and extracellular matrix production, is vital to inflammation, angiogenesis, wound healing, tissue regeneration, and re-epithelialization.[41] TGF-β is essential in osteogenesis through influencing osteoblast precursors via chemotaxis, mitogenesis, and deposition of mineralized elements on the collagen matrix by stimulation of osteoblasts. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor can be increased by TGF-β, thereby, TGF-β encourages angiogenesis and recruitment of inflammatory cells.

    2) Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs)

    PDGFs induce the migration, survival of mesenchymal cell and proliferation, and stimulate collagen production which is required for extracellular matrix restoration throughout the wound healing.[42] PDGF is gathered in large amounts in PRF matrix and released over time. Because of exceptionally short half-life of PDGF, PRF supports its gradual and slow release over time. Furthermore, PDGF is the main mitogen for fibroblasts and osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, glial cells, and undifferentiated osteoprogenitor cells.

    3) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

    VEGF is defined as the most powerful growth factor that triggers new blood vessel formation. Activated thrombocytes and macrophages release vascular endothelial growth factor to the injured sites for angiogenesis. Thus, providing nutrients supply and increasing blood flow to the injured site.[43],[44] Moreover, upregulation in osteogenesis can be noticed upon combination of recombinant human VEGF into different bone biomaterial agents.

    4) Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)

    The IGFs stimulate proliferation and differentiation of most cells and act like a cell-protective agents.[45] Platelets, during their activation and degranulation, are responsible for IGFs releasing which induce mesenchymal cells differentiation and mitogenesis. IGFs protect cells from different apoptotic stimuli by stimulates survival signals.[45] Thus, it considered a major regulator of programmed cell apoptosis

      PRF Preparation Protocol Top

    The main equipment used for PRF preparation are 24-gauge butterfly needles, 10 ml vacuumed tube without any external anticoagulants, centrifuge, and PRF box.[46] Centrifugation of 10ml intravenous blood in sterilized tube at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes is used in PRF preparation technique[47] to form of a yellow gel like fibrin plug in the central part of tube has been established[17] [Figure 1]. PRF continue release growth factors for 300 minutes afterwards its formation. So, it should be utilized immediately. The progressive release of leukocytes and cytokines lasts for 7–11 days, while the fibrin scaffold undergoes degeneration.
    Figure 1: Formation of yellow gel like fibrin clot in the middle of tube after centrifugation

    Click here to view

      PRF Applications Top

    PRF is a potent healing biomaterial and has intrinsic regenerative ability which can be utilized in various aspect, for instance:

  • Treatment of periodontal intra-bony defects.[8]

  • Periodontal Furcation involvement therapy.[48]

  • Sinus lift procedures.[49]

  • Tissue engineering.[50]

  •   Application of PRF in Periodontic Field Top

    PRF used to be a scaffold matrix only or in mixture with other agents of biomaterials. Later, it has widely dental applications which accelerate the healing and regeneration of oral tissues. Many periodontists use PRF to regenerate the periodontal defects. Following regenerative periodontal treatment with PRF, these attempts showed significant enhancements in clinical attachment level gains as well as periodontal pocket depth. Moreover, improvement in the outcomes of furcation class II involvement treatment also achieved.[39],[40] Nowadays, the clinical trials establish that using PRF alone or combined with bone grafts result in statistically higher findings in a comparison with conventional open flap treatment alone or the use of bone grafts alone.

      Use of PRF in Guided Bone Regeneration Top

    PRF has been employed in combination with bone augmentation procedures. When PRF is used with a bone grafting material, additional graft stability as well as an increased vascular supply are improved. However, more research is needed to address effective potential of PRF for bone regeneration procedures.[35]

      Disadvantages and Limitations of PRF Top

    The disadvantages of PRF include but are not limited to:

  • The preparation and storage of PRF are quite inadequate.

  • Both time interval between handling and blood centrifugation is critical for clinical outcome.

  • PRF membranes shrink and alter PRF structure if not used immediately after the preparation.

  • Growth factor in PRF begins to drop right after the preparation changing PRF biologic properties.[31]

  • Bacterial contamination of membranes is likely to happen if PRF is stored in the refrigerator.

  • PRF is very slippery and hard to handle and use.

  • However, these limitations can be avoided by followed the standardized preparation protocol.

      PRF Degradation Properties Top

    The degradation rate of PRF is typically 10 to 14 days.[35] PRF fast resorption time is a disadvantage for using PRF for dental procedures such as guided bone regeneration (GBR). It is recommended that resorption time with collagen membranes is 4 to 8 weeks. Consequently, the use of two PRF membranes or modifying the properties of PRF membranes through heating or other procedures is suggested.[35] The effect of these double layering techniques or various modifications affect cell survival/behavior, growth factor release, or tissue regeneration. Further research is needed to explore the modification of the adjustments to standardized protocols.[35]

    Future recommendations

    More studies should be conducted to relate the clinical outcomes of PRF use along with its biologic mechanisms which open up new uses of second generation of platelet concentrate. Limited studies are on PRF effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and other biological consequences. Hence, further studies should be carried out to open newer approaches for the platelet concentrate use.

      Conclusion Top

    The use of PRF either alone or with bone grafts, soft tissue grafts, and pharmacologic agents offered reliable and promising outcomes via enhancements in clinical and radiographic parameters of periodontal therapy. However, long-term randomized control trials with large sample size are required to affirm the advantages and recognizing the unknown effects of PRF as a biomaterial agent.

    Ethical approval

    Not applicable.


    This study was funded by first author. Special thanks to Dr. Saif Altai for editing the original manuscript.

    Financial support and sponsorship


    Conflict of interest

    All the authors certify that they have no conflict of interest to disclose in relation to the subject matter or materials discussed in the present study.

      References Top

    Al-Fatlawi ZMH, Jassim RA, Al-Talib ZNM Clinical evaluation of bovine derived xenograft with a bioabsorbable collagen membrane in the treatment of molar class II furcation defects. Med J Babylon 2013;10.  Back to cited text no. 1
    Özcan E, Saygun I, Kantarcı A, Özarslantürk S, Serdar MA, Özgürtaş T The effects of a novel non-invasive application of platelet-rich fibrin on periodontal clinical parameters and gingival crevicular fluid transforming growth factor-β and collagen-1 levels: A randomized, controlled, clinical study. J Periodontol 2021;92:1252-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
    Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A, Dohan SL, Dohan AJ, Mouhyi J, et al. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A second-generation platelet concentrate. Part II: Platelet-related biologic features. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;101:e45-50.  Back to cited text no. 3
    Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A, Dohan SL, Dohan AJ, Mouhyi J, et al. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A second-generation platelet concentrate. Part III: Leucocyte activation: A new feature for platelet concentrates? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;101:e51-5.  Back to cited text no. 4
    Roy S, Driggs J, Elgharably H, Biswas S, Findley M, Khanna S, et al. Platelet-rich fibrin matrix improves wound angiogenesis via inducing endothelial cell proliferation. Wound Repair Regen 2011;19:753-66.  Back to cited text no. 5
    Chen FM, Wu LA, Zhang M, Zhang R, Sun HH Homing of endogenous stem/progenitor cells for in situ tissue regeneration: Promises, strategies, and translational perspectives. Biomaterials 2011;32:3189-209.  Back to cited text no. 6
    Nurden AT Platelets, inflammation and tissue regeneration. Thromb Haemost 2011;105 Suppl 1:S13-33.  Back to cited text no. 7
    Thorat M, Pradeep AR, Pallavi B Clinical effect of autologous platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of intra-bony defects: A controlled clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol 2011;38:925-32.  Back to cited text no. 8
    Steed DL, Donohoe D, Webster MW, Lindsley L Effect of extensive debridement and treatment on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic ulcer study group. J Am Coll Surg 1996;183:61-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    Wieman TJ, Smiell JM, Su Y Efficacy and safety of a topical gel formulation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (becaplermin) in patients with chronic neuropathic diabetic ulcers. A phase III randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Diabetes Care 1998;21:822-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
    White AP, Vaccaro AR, Hall JA, Whang PG, Friel BC, McKee MD Clinical applications of BMP-7/OP-1 in fractures, nonunions and spinal fusion. Int Orthop 2007;31:735-41.  Back to cited text no. 11
    Miron RJ, Zhang YF Osteoinduction: A review of old concepts with new standards. J Dent Res 2012;91:736-44.  Back to cited text no. 12
    Delgado JJ, Evora C, Sánchez E, Baro M, Delgado A Validation of a method for non-invasive in vivo measurement of growth factor release from a local delivery system in bone. J Control Release 2006;114:223-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
    Oe S, Fukunaka Y, Hirose T, Yamaoka Y, Tabata Y A trial on regeneration therapy of rat liver cirrhosis by controlled release of hepatocyte growth factor. J Control Release 2003;88:193-200.  Back to cited text no. 14
    Miron RJ, Bosshardt DD Osteomacs: Key players around bone biomaterials. Biomaterials 2016;82:1-19.  Back to cited text no. 15
    Giannobile WV Periodontal tissue engineering by growth factors. Bone 1996;19:23S-37S.  Back to cited text no. 16
    Dohan DM, Choukroun J, Diss A, Dohan SL, Dohan AJ, Mouhyi J, et al. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A second-generation platelet concentrate. Part I: Technological concepts and evolution. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;101:e37-44.  Back to cited text no. 17
    Al-Noaman AS Platelet-rich plasma in oral and dental surgery: A review. Med J Babylon 2021;18:59. Available from: https://www.medjbabylon.org/article.asp?issn=1812-156X;year=2021;volume=18;issue=2;spage=59;epage=65;aulast=Al-Noaman  Back to cited text no. 18
    Redah SM Role of platelet rich plasma in osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Med J Babylon 2022;19:354.  Back to cited text no. 19
    de Vries RA, de Bruin M, Marx JJM, Hart HC, Van de Wiel A Viability of platelets collected by apheresis versus the platelet-rich plasma technique: A direct comparison. Transfus Sci 1993;14:3918.  Back to cited text no. 20
    Anfossi G, Trovati M, Mularoni E, Massucco P, Cavalot F, Mattiello L, et al. Effects of diltiazem on thromboxane B2 production from platelet-rich plasma and whole blood. Prostaglandins, Leukot Essent Fat Acids 1991;44:14954.  Back to cited text no. 21
    Whitman DH, Berry RL, Green DM Platelet gel: An autologous alternative to fibrin glue with applications in oral and maxillofacial surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 1997;55:12949.  Back to cited text no. 22
    Pradeep AR, Rao NS, Agarwal E, Bajaj P, Kumari M, Naik SB Comparative evaluation of autologous platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of 3-wall intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol 2012;83:1499507.   Back to cited text no. 23
    Pradeep AR, Bajaj P, Rao NS, Agarwal E, Naik SB Platelet-rich fibrin combined with a porous hydroxyapatite graft for the treatment of 3-wall intrabony defects in chronic periodontitis: A randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol 2017;88:128896.  Back to cited text no. 24
    Abdul-Lateef T, Al-Gailani MW The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseointegration period of dental implants. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2015;27:1016.  Back to cited text no. 25
    Ismael WK, Abdul Lateef T, Shumran MK An analysis of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma injections on the treatment of internal derangement of a temporomandibular joint. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2017;29:3944.  Back to cited text no. 26
    Abd Alridha AM, Al-Gburi KM, Abbood SK Warfarin therapy and pharmacogenetics: A narrative review of regional and Iraqi studies. Med J Babylon 2022;19:324.  Back to cited text no. 27
    Choukroun J, Adda F, Schoeffler C, Vervelle A Une opportunité en paro-implantologie: le PRF. Implantodontie 2001;42:e62.  Back to cited text no. 28
    Pirraco RP, Reis RL, Marques AP Effect of monocytes/macrophages on the early osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2013;7:392400.  Back to cited text no. 29
    Dohan Ehrenfest DM, Diss A, Odin G, Doglioli P, Hippolyte MP, Charrier JB In vitro effects of choukroun’s PRF (platelet-rich fibrin) on human gingival fibroblasts, dermal prekeratinocytes, preadipocytes, and maxillofacial osteoblasts in primary cultures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:341-52.  Back to cited text no. 30
    Dohan Ehrenfest DM, de Peppo GM, Doglioli P, Sammartino G Slow release of growth factors and thrombospondin-1 in choukroun’s platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A gold standard to achieve for all surgical platelet concentrates technologies. Growth Factors 2009;27:63-9.  Back to cited text no. 31
    Moojen DJ, Everts PA, Schure RM, Overdevest EP, van Zundert A, Knape JT, et al. Antimicrobial activity of platelet-leukocyte gel against staphylococcus aureus. J Orthop Res 2008;26:404-10.  Back to cited text no. 32
    Gromack DT, Reyes BP, Mustoe TA Current concepts in wound healing growth factor and macrophage interaction. J Trauma - Inj Infect Crit Care 1990;30:S129-33. Available from: https://europepmc.org/article/med/2254972  Back to cited text no. 33
    Choukroun J, Diss A, Simonpieri A, Girard MO, Schoeffler C, Dohan SL, et al. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF): A second-generation platelet concentrate. Part IV: Clinical effects on tissue healing. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2006;101:e56-60.  Back to cited text no. 34
    Preeja C, Arun S Platelet-rich fibrin: Its role in periodontal regeneration. Saudi J Dent Res 2014;5:117-22. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S221081571300036X  Back to cited text no. 35
    Abbas AM, Bede SY, Alnumay SH Evaluation of the effectiveness of using platelet rich fibrin (PRF) as a sole grafting material and membrane in augmentation of dehiscence and fenestration defects encountered during dental implant surgery. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2019;31:44-51. Available from: https://jbcd.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/jbcd/article/view/2623  Back to cited text no. 36
    Kawazoe T, Kim HH Tissue augmentation by white blood cell-containing platelet-rich plasma. Cell Transplant 2012;21:601-7.  Back to cited text no. 37
    Pirraco RP, Reis RL, Marques AP Effect of monocytes/macrophages on the early osteogenic differentiation of hbmscs. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2013;7:392-400.  Back to cited text no. 38
    Hoaglin DR, Lines GK Prevention of localized osteitis in mandibular third-molar sites using platelet-rich fibrin. Int J Dent 2013;2013:875380.  Back to cited text no. 39
    Kareem ASA, Hussaini AH Al Effect of platelet rich-fibrin on alveolar osteitis incidence following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars: A comparative study. J Baghdad Coll Dent 2019;31.  Back to cited text no. 40
    Clark RAF Fibrin and wound healing. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001;936:355-67. Available from: https://europepmc.org/article/med/11460492  Back to cited text no. 41
    Ghasemzadeh M, Hosseini E Intravascular leukocyte migration through platelet thrombi: Directing leukocytes to sites of vascular injury. Thromb Haemost 2015;113:1224-35.  Back to cited text no. 42
    Lozito TP, Taboas JM, Kuo CK, Tuan RS Mesenchymal stem cell modification of endothelial matrix regulates their vascular differentiation. J Cell Biochem 2009;107:706-13.  Back to cited text no. 43
    Kato J, Tsuruda T, Kita T, Kitamura K, Eto T Adrenomedullin: A protective factor for blood vessels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005;25:2480-7.  Back to cited text no. 44
    Giannobile WV, Hernandez RA, Finkelman RD, Ryan S, Kiritsy CP, D’Andrea M, et al. Comparative effects of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and insulin-like growth factor-I, individually and in combination, on periodontal regeneration in macaca fascicularis. J Periodontal Res 1996;31:301-12.  Back to cited text no. 45
    Choukroun J, Adda F, Schoeffler C, Vervelle A The opportunity in perio-implantology. The PRF 2001;42:55-62. Available from: https://www.scienceopen.com/document?vid=38d30c61-808c-4355-bda4-1eb440085011  Back to cited text no. 46
    Ross R, Glomset J, Kariya B, Harker L A platelet-dependent serum factor that stimulates the proliferation of arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1974;71:1207-10.  Back to cited text no. 47
    Sharma A, Pradeep AR Autologous platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of mandibular degree II furcation defects: A randomized clinical trial. J Periodontol 2011;82:1396-403.  Back to cited text no. 48
    Mazor Z, Horowitz RA, Del Corso M, Prasad HS, Rohrer MD, Dohan Ehrenfest DM Sinus floor augmentation with simultaneous implant placement using choukroun’s platelet-rich fibrin as the sole grafting material: A radiologic and histologic study at 6 months. J Periodontol 2009;80:2056-64.  Back to cited text no. 49
    Gassling V, Douglas T, Warnke PH, Açil Y, Wiltfang J, Becker ST Platelet-rich fibrin membranes as scaffolds for periosteal tissue engineering. Clin Oral Implants Res 2010;21:543-9.  Back to cited text no. 50


      [Figure 1]


        Similar in PUBMED
       Search Pubmed for
       Search in Google Scholar for
     Related articles
        Access Statistics
        Email Alert *
        Add to My List *
    * Registration required (free)  

      In this article
    Periodontal Woun...
    Platelets and Pl...
    Classification o...
    PRF Vs. PRP
    Standard Protocols
    PRF Definition a...
    Effect of PRF on...
    Major Cell Types...
    Growth Factors i...
    PRF Preparation ...
    PRF Applications
    Application of P...
    Use of PRF in Gu...
    Disadvantages an...
    PRF Degradation ...
    Article Figures

     Article Access Statistics
        PDF Downloaded191    
        Comments [Add]    

    Recommend this journal