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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 379-382

Altered hematological profile: The forerunner of fatalities caused by COVID-19

Department of Pathology, DMGMC & H, Purulia, West Bengal, India

Correspondence Address:
Arijit Majumdar
Department of Pathology, DMGMC & H, Purulia, West Bengal
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_44_22

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Background: Being a systemic infection, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects hematologic system, along with cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurological systems, resulting in altered hematological parameters. These altered hematological findings are thought to have a role in early risk stratification and prognostication of COVID-19 patients. However, the data on hematological abnormalities associated with the disease among Eastern Indian COVID-19 patients, particularly the Bengalis, are limited. Aim: The aim is to study the association, if any, between various hematological parameters and disease severity of COVID-19. Materials and Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study involving 145 laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on the disease severity, the patients were divided into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe. Various hematological parameters were analyzed. Results: Of the 145 patients, 82.8%, 9.6%, and 7.5% of the cases were in the mild, moderate, and severe groups, respectively. The mean age was 48 years. The result of our study showed that the age of the patients is directly proportional to the severity of the illness. About 62.1% of the patients were male, whereas the rest (37.9%) were female. Our study showed an independent association of Covid severity with male gender. Although mean total leukocyte count (TLC), absolute count of neutrophil, lymphocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil–monocyte ratio (NMR), lymphocyte–monocyte ratio, platelet–lymphocyte ratio, and systemic inflammatory index among mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 cases were statistically significant (P < 0.05), basophil, monocyte, and platelet count were statistically insignificant among the three groups. Nearly all of the hematological parameters could be used as potential diagnostic biomarkers for subsequent analysis because their area under the curve was higher than 0.50. Conclusion: Severity of COVID-19 is associated with older age, male sex, higher TLC, neutrophilia, lymphopenia, eosinopenia, high NLR, and high NMR. As complete blood count is an inexpensive routine blood investigation, it can be very useful in a resource-poor healthcare facility, which is unable to provide high-end investigations.

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