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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 311-317

A comprehensive review of architecture, classification, challenges, and future of the Internet of Medical Things (IoMTs)

1 HELYXON Healthcare Solutions Private Limited, IIT Madras Research Park, E-Block, Module No. 9, 1st Floor, Kanagam Road, Taramani, Chennai, India
2 Department of Anatomy, Azeezia Institute of Medical Sciences, Kollam, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
S Viveka
Department of Anatomy, Medical Education Unit, Azeezia Institute of Medical Sciences, Kollam, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_5_22

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Background and Objectives: The healthcare industry is fast accepting the benefits of Internet of Medical Things (IoMTs) and incorporating the services in day-to-day activity. The objective of this review was to comprehensively review the IoMTs, briefly revisit the functioning architecture, classify, list the challenges and possible solutions, and suggest the future trends among IoMTs usage and implementation. Materials and Methods: During April 2021, an extensive search for articles for Internet of Medical Things (IoMTs), medical devices, Internet of Things (IoTs) with biosensors either in title or in keywords was done using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, and Web of Science databases. Studies were categorized into two types: those evaluating the clinical outcomes of IoMTs and those evaluating the technological basis of IoMTs. Results: IoMT architecture was reviewed under four headings: sensors, IoT gateway/framework, machine learning, and reporting tools. IoMT classification based on place of usage (body centric IoMTs, hospital IoMTs with point of care kiosks, and ubiquitous IoMTs), based on the system-wise application (cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, endocrine, medication) and based on outcomes (fitness-alone IoMTs, clinical grading and monitoring IoMTs, and remote patient monitoring IoMTs) is proposed. Conclusion: IoMTs can be classified based on the place of usage into body centric, hospital-based, and ubiquitous systems. Classification based on the body systems and sensors aids in first-hand information about the existing IoMTs. Challenges for effective implementation of IoMTs are interoperability, data privacy, security, regulatory, and infrastructural costs. The future is promising for IoMTs with robust technological improvement and effective implementation.

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